1.44 A significant proportion of the labour force depends exclusively on rewards and informal agreements. Workers who work under premiums and forms of unregistered agreements account for a quarter of the labour force and are mainly lower-income workers. These include a high proportion of women, young people and casual workers. As the ACTU has argued, if an agreement covers a union (and applies), the union will have certain rights that it would not otherwise have. For example, the union will be able to enforce the terms of the agreement.  1.35 Professor Ellem`s comments appear to be justified for the Committee. The glossary of the UNWTO report shows that among those in the individual agreement category are workers whose main part of their salary was determined by an individual contract, a registered individual contract, a common law contract or a deferral agreement.  2.44 The Committee received complaints from two former employees of Krispy Kreme, who claimed that they had been «pressured and harassed» to sign an AWA.  One of the applicants, Ms. Jasmin Smith, stated that once on an AWA, many standard premium benefits such as overtime, Saturday fixed charges, 50 per cent of penalties for Sunday work and a uniform allowance were eliminated. It stated that it had suffered a 9.3 per cent pay cut without benefits and a significant increase in the number of hours worked.
It criticized the fact that the AWA does not provide a satisfactory mechanism for labour disputes that should be referred to a third party, such as the Commission, and described how a written complaint about sexual harassment it had filed against a business leader was ignored, as there was no recourse under the AWA , with the exception of a non-binding mediation provision. This gave rise to little confidence that the complaint would be dealt with fairly. Ms. Smith urged the Committee to recommend that the continuation of AEAs «in any form.» 1.22 The Act made substantial changes to the legal framework for drafting formal contracts in the federal jurisdiction. By law, there are a number of options for reaching an agreement, both formal and informal. Formal options include a Certified Agreement (CA) that is most often certified by the AIRC in accordance with Section 170LJ (Employers and Workers` Organization) or Section 170LK (employers and the majority of workers). Other opportunities exist for the creation of a certification body for new businesses and for the resolution of labour disputes. 1.53 Some rehabilitate the fact that many employers prefer bonuses and legal collective agreements. They provide a basis for the establishment of common law agreements.
They offer a standard of wages and conditions that is useful. Professor Bradon Ellem agrees that for many employers, transparent, effective and fair systems of occupational safety and health and worker compensation are more important.